1. The applications with which this judgment is concerned are made in two separate but linked actions. The first action in point of time was commenced by claim form issued on 17 August 2016 (the "2016 proceedings"). The second action was commenced more than 4½ years later by claim form issued on 22 March 2021 (the "2021 proceedings"). Both actions relate to a dispute over the control of an English company, Koza Ltd ("Koza"), which was incorporated in March 2014 for the purposes of pursuing international mining operations.