Tobias D. McKinnon, M.A. (Oxon), is a member of the New York bar and works in Freshfields' International Arbitration Group in Tokyo. He focuses his practice on complex international disputes, including commercial litigation and arbitration, investor-state disputes, global investigations, and economic sanctions. He has a particular interest in the procedural and evidence aspects of legal proceedings and investigations, having written on legal professional privilege and on the admissibility of evidence in criminal and civil proceedings. Tobias has assisted claimants and defendants in commercial arbitrations seated in number of jurisdictions and governed by a variety of laws, often at the interface with white collar defence work. He has also appeared regularly before masters in the English High Court in relation to different types of interlocutory applications. Prior to joining Freshfields, Tobias worked at leading international law firms in Singapore and London, and at the European Commission in Brussels, in the areas of civil disputes, corporate crime, economic sanctions, and international trade. Most recently, Tobias was an associate at a U.S. law firm in London, in a Tier-1 ranked white collar defence and securities litigation practice. He has also been on client secondment in France to one of the world's largest aircraft and defence manufacturing conglomerates. Tobias is fluent and has worked on mandates in English, French, German, and Spanish. He has acted for a wide array of pro bono clients, with a keen interest in public law, judicial review, and immigration-related work.